Anthropology

Naïve realism
the belief that people everywhere see the world in the same way.

key informant
a teacher who has a special kind of student: professional anthropologist. Almost any individual who has acquired a collection of cultural behavior.

Culture
the learned and shared knowledge that people use to generate behavior and interpret experience

Explicit Culture
cultural knowledge people can talk about
EX: language

Tacit Culture
cultural knowledge people lack words for
EX: phonemes

Ethnography
process of discovering and describing a particular culture

Microcultures
systems of cultural knowledge characteristic of subgroups within larger societies

Informant
someone who teaches their culture to an anthropologist

Respondent
an individual who responds to questions included on questionnaires; the subject of survey research

Naïve Realism
the belief that people everywhere see the world in the same way

Culture Shock
state of anxiety that results from cross-cultural misunderstanding

Ethnocentrism
belief and feeling that one’s culture is best

Symbol
anything we can perceive with our senses that stands for something else

Language
of cultural knowledge used to generate and interpret speech

Speech
refers to the behavior that produces vocal sounds

Phonology
consists of the categories and rules for forming vocal symbols

Phonemes
minimal categories of speech sounds that serve to keep utterances apart

Grammar
refers to the categories and rules for combining vocal symbols

Morphemes
categories in any language that carry meaning

Semantics
refer to the categories and rules for relating vocal symbols to their referents

Sociolinguistic Rules
combine meaningful utterances with social situations into appropriate messages

Ecology
relationship of an organism to other elements within its environmental sphere

Cultural Ecology
the way people use their culture to adapt to particular environments

Physical Environment
the world as people experience it with their senses

Cultural Environment
the categories and rules people use to classify and explain their physical environment

Subsistence Strategies
strategies used by groups of people to exploit their environment for material necessities. Hunting and gathering, horticulture, pastoralism, agriculture, and industrialism are subsistence strategies.

Hunting and Gathering
subsistence strategy involving the foraging of wild, naturally occurring foods

Horticulture
a kind of subsistence strategy involving semi-extensive, usually shifting, agriculural practices
ex: slash and burn

Pastorialism
a subsistence strategy based on the maintenance and use of large herds of animals

Agriculture
a subsistence strategy involving intensive farming of permanent fields through the use of such means as the plow, irrigation, and fertilizer

Industrialism
a subsistence strategy marked by intensive, mechanized food production and elaborate distribution networks

Production
the process of making something

Allocation of Resources
the knowledge people use to assign rights to the ownership and use of resources

Technology
the part of a culture that involves the knowledge that people use to make and use tools and to extract and refine raw materials

Division of Labor
the rules that govern the assignment of jobs to people

Unit of Production
the group of people responsible for producing something

Distribution
the strategies for apportioning goods and services among the members of a group

Market Exchange
the transfer of goods and services based on price, supply, and demand

Reciprocal Exchange
the transfer of goods and services between two people or groups based on their role obligations. A form of nonmarket exchange

Redistribution
the transfer of goods and services between a group of people and a central collecting service based on role obligation. The US income tax is a good example

Market Economies
economies in which production and exchange are motivated by market factors: price, supply, and demand. Market economies are associated with large societies where impersonal exchange is common.

Globalization
the process that promotes economic, political, and other cultural connections among people living all over the world

World System
the economic incorporation of different parts of the world into a system based on capitalism, not politics

Transnational
literally, across national borders

Refugees
people who flee their country of origin because they share a well-founded fear of persecution

Guest Workers
individuals who are given temporary visas to live and work in another country

Multicultural
literally, more than one culture. Usually applied to situations where groups with different cultural backgrounds are part of a larger social aggregate

Cultural Diffusion
the passage of a cultural category, culturally defined behavior, of culturally produced artifact from one society to another through borrowing

Cultural Hybridization
the process by which a cultural custom, idea, of concept is transformed to fit the cultural context of a society that borrows it

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