1)Compare and contrast identified similarities as well as differences in expected assessment across the childhood age groups.
In the health perception category parents are responsible for their child’s perceived level of health and well-being, and on practices for maintaining health. In the school age years the children are beginning to incorporate their own health practices like good hygiene in their daily lives. The nutrition and metabolic pattern continues with help of the parents. Toddlers and preschoolers rely on their parents to make sure that they are eating the right foods. School age kids are in the stage where they can pick out their own foods and have been taught what the best sources of good nutrition are. In the toddler age group, parents are beginning to initiate toileting training. By the school age years this age groups has elimination patterns similar to adults. With the exception of those who have elimination problems like enuresis.
Throughout the three age groups, activity and exercise levels continue to increase with the learning of new fine and gross motor skills. Once again parents continue to play a big role by promoting healthy levels of physical activity with their child. As the child begins to age so does their ability to comprehend and use information. Each age group the child continues to add another cognitive function. The biggest difference between sleep patterns is that as the child ages naps are no longer needed. All of the age groups tend to need at least 8 hours of sleep. The differences between the age groups in the roles and relationship pattern is that in the toddler and preschool age they try to identify with their parents or care givers whereas school age children begin to focus or identify with their peers. The value and belief pattern is instilled in the child when they are born. Parents or caregivers teach their children what values are important to them.
2)Summarize how a nurse would handle physical assessments, examinations, education, and communication differently with children versus adults. Consider spirituality and cultural differences in your answer.
Adults and children are in two different stages of life. Children are in the stages were they are still learning and understanding how the healthcare world works. Most adults on the other hand are used to going to the doctor and they kind of understand the routine during the assessment process.
“Many assessment techniques for the child are similar to those of the adults. Techniques for approaching the pediatric patient vary from one age group to the next. A basic principle during the physical assessment is building a trusting relationship; this can be done in a variety of ways” (Estes, 2006, pg 848).
When assessing the child the nurse must establish a game plan based on the child’s age. Children are already frightened about the idea of receiving an exam but the nurse can use techniques to reduce anxiety. Parents or caregivers must be available for support. According to Estes, 2006 nurses can use game playing and they can demonstrate procedures on a doll, stuff toy or on the parent to increase patient cooperativeness. The writer remembers learning in nursing school about when taking the blood of a younger child. Never say “I’m going to take your blood pressure” but say something like “I going to see how strong your muscles are with this cuff”. When educating the child try to involve their parents but use materials that are on the child’s level. This can consists of materials that use colorful pictures and graphics.
Individuals have to understand their own beliefs and traditions especially nurses who are with always dealing with the public. Each day more nurses are providing care to patients that are from different cultures. With such a diverse population challenges will be faced. “As American society shifts in demographics and attitudes about diversity, there is a growing recognition that health and illness care occurs in dynamic interactions situated within complex cultural contexts for both patients and providers” (Benkert, Borse, Doorenbos,Schim,2005, pg324). Nurse have to be more culturally sensitive when assessing and educating patients. If the nurse is unfamiliar with ethnicity or race then research should be done before the assessment if time allows.
Benkert, R. Borse,N. Doorenbos, A. & Schim, S.2005. Psychometric Evaluation of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument Among Healthcare Providers. Nursing Research.54(5)324-331.
Edleman,C. & Mandle C.(2010). Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span. Missouri: Mosby Elsevier. Estes M. (2006). Health Assessment & Physical Examination.Canada: Thompson Delmar Learning.