In today’s society, a major concern that ought to ensure success in a country’s future is the positive development, growth and health of children. According to the World Health Organization, children are susceptible to acquiring malnutrition, along with having a higher prevalence rate of diseases compared to any other age group (WHO, 2012). Likewise, these susceptibilities in children are determined by the social determinants of health; known as conditions set in place in order to combat illness and are dependent on the country’s power, wealth and economy (WHO, 2012).
In this critical review, the social gradient and social determinants of health are used in order to analyze the impact of society on child mental health and development. From a Canadian perspective of the social the determinants of health, the following topics that are addressed in the critical analysis of child mental health include three social determinants.
These determinants consist of the early child hood development vs. race/ethnicity, early child hood development vs. ealth services, and early child hood development vs. social exclusion. While the article, “Call for Help (HL)” By Suzanna Pillay, reports the significant view that the children’s help line service is known to be the number one coping method for children with negative psychological issues; however, this is not the case since the primary solution to avoiding child mental health issues is with the main help of the primary care giver, general public and global organizations.
Summary of “Call for Help” By Suzanna Pillay The article’s overall message describes children being a susceptible being to mental health issues that occur due to many factors, however, those issues can be reduced and prevented during the first three years of development with the help of several caregivers. Suzanne mentions that the children’s helpline is the main route to determining what’s wrong with the children who call because many tend to seek help there rather than to their primary caregivers, their parents.
In addition, research and statistics from the child helpline shows that some of the mental disorders that the children acquire are a lack of confidence, eating disorders, phobias, obsessions, anxiety, suicidal, loneliness and depression. According to the article, the central solution to fight against the odds of children developing mental health problems in their later years is to provide a positive environment both external and internal that will lead them to a stable life.
Overall, although the article layout many viewpoints, issues and solutions toward child mental health, in the end it comes down to the fact that the early years of a child’s development is critical and consists of many components such as brain development, emotions, stability and perception in life, coping, and health. Critical Analysis To begin with, from a Canadian perspective they believe that early childhood development (ECD) is one of the important social determinants of health to draw upon on when analyzing child mental health.
As mentioned in the article, the first three years are vital for a child’s emotional and development and control; whereas increasing stress hormones can affect the development of the brain. However, on the social gradient scale the early years of development can vary between different races and ethnicities. For instance, according to an article by Christina Gamache Martin and her colleges, research has shown to indicate that there are racial and ethnic disparities; where African Americans are more prone to higher cortisol levels than Caucasians and Latinos had lower levels of cortisol than Caucasians (Evidence 1).
Critsol is a glucocorticide hormone derived from the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, where both work together to mediate between persistent stress and appalling health (Evidence 1). As a result, since the African American group has shown to have had higher levels of crotisol, they tend have a lack of parental monitoring and higher risk of acquiring mental health issues (eVdence 1). Therefore, it is clear that some children may have a higher tendency of acquiring mental health illnesses due to race and ethnicity.
In conclusion, it would be logical to rovide public services as mentioned in the article by Suzanne Pillay to specific race and ethnic youth groups who are more likely experience negative early child hood development. Moreover, health services provide to a society in Canada is also known to have a significant impact on children and their development. One issue outlined in the article was that 60 % and higher of child care and nursery centers were overpopulated with children with mental disabilities and on top of that they did not follow up on child’s needs presented in an Act in 2001 for children.
This statement essentially indicates that health services such as foster care services and child care centers with mental health ill children will need to be addressed in a manner that will benefit the children. A research study acknowledged by Georgina, Hibbert, makes note of the worthiness of health services in relation to child mental illnesses. The study was a consultation called the “Psychology Consultation Service” which was set up by Brent CAMHS in 1005 that provided consent to improve foster care services.
It was in support of limitations in other studies and issues revolving around mental health and children. They found this consultation to show great improvement in the skills and understanding of children with mental illness in foster care, while also making the foster care givers more self-reliance and assurance to perform their job well. (evidence 2). Other workers, such as social workers found the model consultation to also be beneficial in terms of skills advancement, planning, and increase knowledge.
In regards to the article, the consultation is a fine example of presenting methods in which health services can perform in order to improve their quality of services to help child mental health patients in the future. Lastly, to draw upon the viewpoints made in the article it quite apparent that social exclusion are viable key determinants factors that can both hinder and impact child development in a negative way.
As stated in the article, it important to acknowledge the fact that children who are cared for, not neglected and grow up in a warm environment are more likely to do better in life compared to those who are neglected and experience some type of violence or abuse at a young age. Wren, Frances J, expresses this logic strongly in his article insisting that primary care givers, such as the parents and clinician, of a child play a significantly important role decreasing the chances of mental health illness such as depression in the future (Evidence 3).
The close relationship between the care givers and the child will help to determine any early symptoms of mental health illness that can be prevented in the future (Evidence 3). In connection to the article, if parents sought to provide their child with the care and positive environment they need, children would be less likely to perform such acts like calling the children helpline to ask for help and advice when facing psychological symptoms’ or disorders. Moreover, they would feel more comfortable to talk to their parents and could mean a way of closing the mental illness treatment gap in medical care.
Conclusion In conclusion, it is apparent that there are various social determinants of health that create inequalities in health, usually leading to problems like affecting the care of children with mental health illnesses. As for limitations, this analysis only focuses on three of many of Canada’s standpoints in social inequalities in health. Moreover, despite the research and enhancement of services provided there will always be limitations due to the fact that every child differs from one another.
The analysis makes a clear distinction between the social determinant of health and inequalities in health towards child mental health and development, such that there are inequalities in the child mental health spectrum that need to be evaluated and improved. As a result, the general conception is that in order to reduce limitations in child mental health the help of primary care givers, society and organizations are needed and without them it would be impossible to reduce the effects of negatively impacting environments and early child hood development on children in the future.